The global artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector is estimated to comprise nearly 45 million people worldwide. These women and men produce significant amounts of the world’s minerals, from 20% of the world’s gold to nearly 80% of coloured gemstones. Both women and men play critical roles in the sector: women were estimated in 2003 to make up nearly 30% of the global ASM workforce, a figure that is much higher in some countries and contexts (e.g., artisanal salt mining in Uganda). Not only do they contribute directly to mineral production, but they are also heavily involved in the provision of services (e.g., mining inputs, mineral processing, etc.) to ASM communities. However, despite the important role they play, women are among the groups that face marginalization in the sector.
This annotated bibliography gives an overview of key resources on the topic of gender and ASM. Resources focus on research conducted in the past decade with the exception of those assessed by the authors to be critically important to understanding the issues around gender and ASM. The resources were selected following a wide-reaching review of the literature available on and around the topic. Resources were then assessed according to the criteria of adequate coverage of gender issues and usefulness for a policy-maker/practitioner audience, resulting in the shortlist selected for the bibliography. A total of 70 resources were selected for the final bibliography. These represent a wide range of resources, including academic papers, toolkits, policy documents, and civil society and consultancy reports, among others.